Thursday, December 8, 2011

Specialty fats products

The characteristics of specialty fats products are very different from the fat in general such as margarine, shortening, pastry fat, filling / cream fat, and the othes. In general, its application are divided into three groups: (i) the molded products such as chocolate bars and pralines, (ii) coated / enrobed products, ie, chocolate coatings / non-chocolate wafers, biscuits, nuts, fruits and other and (iii) filling or center in the confectionery product.
This characteristic is related to the crystal structure, in which brown fat has a structure of β (beta) with the crystal density arrangement and melting point is high, the speed of crystal growth is relatively slow, but has a very stable crystalline construction. On the other hand, other types generally have a form of β'(beta-prime) that has the opposite properties. The distinction of its structure is very difficult to distinguish from its melting point, and the parameters that can describe the typical characteristics of brown fat is solid fat content (SFC). SFC profile of specialty fats should be sharp and steep, where at temperatures less than 25 degree C they should have SFC more than 68% to ensure the hard and brittle texture, as well as at temperature of 35 degree C should have SFC less than 5% to ensure no waxy taste in the mouth when chocolate consumed.
They are sometimes called by confectionery fat, hard butter, or cocoa butter alternatives (CBA). In general, specialty fats are divided into 3 groups, namely: Cocoa Butter Equivalent (CBE), CB Replacer (CBR), CB Substitute (CBS).

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Wednesday, November 30, 2011

Bad fat in fast food

Even Greyson Chance rumored to be visiting Jakarta, Indonesia, likes fast food (FF). But did you ever think that fast food contains bad fat ? Dr. Ratna Djuwita from the Faculty of Public Health University of Indonesia said that in modern times, people still eat bad fat from unhealthy option like FF. She obtained this opinion from the results of her study on nutrients of four Indonesia ethnic: Minang Kabau, Sundanese, Javanese and Bugis. She added that their intake is sufficient in quantity, but the quality is not good.
That opinion was indirectly supported by researcher from Harvard University, Dr. Dariush Mozaffarian. But he also said that some of the leading restaurants managed to reduce the bad fat in fast food production in the United States, in order to reduce the risk of being overweight or obese to the consumer. He added that some of the restaurants succeeded in reducing the trans fat (TF) content and saturated fat (SF) content in their product to the safe limit established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or FDA to zero grams (TF) while the SF content up to 2 to 8 grams. However, there are still many restaurants not meet health requirements from the rules set by MOH of Uncle Sam. Although no direct chemical testing, Research Center for the Public Interest CSPI says the research is based on the nutrition label are listed in 85 major industrial products are submitted to the FDA.
There are several reasons why you should reduce the consumption of fast food.
1. It contains ingredients that give the delicious sensation (such as bad fat and sugar) so that you hooked and stimulate you to continue to eat as often as possible. This sometimes makes you eat them regularly every day. Avoid this by changing your eat habits with healthier stuff, like fruits and vegetables fresh.
2. If you like eating them and rarely exercise, then in a few weeks your body will experience weight gain which is not healthy. The bad fat in fast food are then stored and accumulate in your body.
3. Salt can make your menu much more enjoyable. Almost all FF contain high salt. Salt contains sodium. When the level of sodium in the blood is high and cannot be removed by the kidneys, blood volume increases because sodium tends to attract and retain water. This increase causes your heart to work harder to drain the blood throughout the body that causes high blood pressure.
Dr. Ratna suggest that from the consumption of total fat, SF should be no more than 10 percent, and 20 percent unsaturated consisting of 60-10 percent PUFA and 10 percent MUFA.

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Friday, November 11, 2011

Indonesia Palm Oil Industry Barriers

Secretary General of the Indonesian Palm Oil Association (Gapki), Joko Supriyono, explains that there are six barriers to palm oil industry in Indonesia that lead to expanding difficulties or competitiveness declining if they are not removed.
a. Unclear policies for the land that will be used for development of new plantation as the result of imperfections of national spatial issues and the Provincial Spatial Plan (RTRWP). In addition, there are legal uncertainty of the legal status of the land. These conditions make concessionaires and investors choose to wait and see which of course will affect the rate of plantations expansion.
b. The second barrier: a moratorium policy on primary forests and peatlands can actually complicate the resolution of land issues that have previously been faced with the RTRWP problem.
The president instruction concerning the moratorium is considered to collide with other regulations such as the Law Number 41 (1999) regarding Forestry. On this basis, the policy of a moratorium be counterproductive to the development of palm oil industry.
Although the government provides the degraded land area of 35.2 million ha but its status still in doubt because this areas includes forest areas.
c. The third of Indonesia palm oil industry barriers, high CPO export tax which is progressive is proven not effective to suppress the volume of exports of CPO and have not been able to encourage the development of downstream industry in this country.
Instead, the tax is believed to be unfair to producers of raw materials either state or private estates and smallholders because they do not enjoy increased margins that should be obtained from the high price of CPO in the world today. So it is not appropriate if the tax is planned as the main instrument as the downstream industry actually need more appropriate incentives and attractive.
d. Fourth barrier, the development of palm plantations that led to Eastern Indonesia is less supported by adequate infrastructure such as ports. Supposedly there is an export port in Kalimantan to facilitate CPO sales abroad. In consideration, the total production of crude palm oil (CPO) from Kalimantan and Sulawesi has reached 30 percent of national production. It is also expected soon realized the development of industrial clusters to encourage the growth of the downstream industry.
e. Fifth barrier, the CPO business was harmed by the application of tax rules regarding VAT on primary products of fresh palm bunch (TBS/ Tandan Buah Segar). Because the VAT of TBS is waived so that TBS for input tax on production factors goods couldn’t be credited and become an additional burden. As a result, it leads to double taxation to the integrated companies (production-processing).
f. Sixth, the government should make climate change mitigation program with its own forces without involving foreign aid to overcome Indonesia palm oil industry barrier. The involvement of foreign funds will only make this country more dependent on other countries, while foreign aid is not necessarily give a direct impact on employment and poverty reduction.

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Thursday, November 10, 2011

Palm oil prospect

Palm oil prospect can be evaluated from its strength and opportunity. The expansion of its agribusiness is one of the steps required as plantation sub-sector development activities in order to revitalize the agricultural sector. The growth of various subsystems that is very rapidly in this agribusiness since the late 1970s is the evidence for the rapid movement of this industry. World's palm oil demand has increased in the last two decades, first for use in food, consumer products, and more recently as the biofuel raw materials. Malaysia and Indonesia account for approximately 87 percent of world production.

This commodity with its various uses for both food and non food industries, show the development which is not only associated with the growth of vegetable oil in Indonesia and the world, but also related to the growth of other sources, such as soy, rape seed and sunflower. In terms of competitiveness, palm oil (PO) has a good competitiveness compared to others, because: (1) its productivity per hectare is quite high, (2) it is an annual plant which well adapt to various agro-climate change, and being reviewed from its nutritional aspects, it has not been proven to cause increased cholesterol levels, and even contain beta carotene as a source of pro-vitamin A.
CPO (Crude Palm Oil) is a major commodity of plantation sector in Indonesia which is the second largest producer after Malaysia. Various advances have been gained in development of its plantations and a variety of benefits has to be realized as a result of this agribusiness actors efforts. Support from various parties such as banking, research and other economic infrastructure support by the various agencies involved in this sector is very important role. Its tree which is an annual plant may play a role in the absorption greenhouse gases or other environmental services such as biodiversity conservation or eco-tourism.
Palm oil prospect in Indonesia gave a very positive impact in national establishment, since PO is one source of foreign exchange from non-oil sector which is quite important. World vegetable oil consumption always exceeds its production so that the tendency of the world vegetable oil prices will always go up. From World Oil: production and consumption of edible oils during the period 2008-2012 is estimated to 132 million tonnes, while production is only 108 million tons so it needs a new supply of 24 million tons.
Palm oil has better prospects than others in the future due to several factors, among others:
1. Palm oil productivity is quite high compared to others.
2. For annual crops, PO is easier to adapt to its environment compared to others such as soybeans and sunflowers.
3. Judging from the healthcare, PO has the advantages when compared with others because they contain beta-carotene as pro-vitamin A and vitamin E
4. PO can also be used as raw materials for oleochemical industry which has the advantages compared to products made from petroleum. Palm oil is a source of raw materials that can be renewed (renewable), while petroleum is expected to be depleted within the next few years.
5. Oleochemical products are made from PO is safer, because its edible nature of and it is friendly to the environment and is easily broken down.
The increasing demand for vegetable oils is in line with population growth and economic growth. Therefore, plants with higher productivity of oil will meet the expectations of market demand in the future. PO productivity is up to 4 tons / ha / year exceeds the productivity of soybeans which is only 0.4 tons / ha / year and 0.57 tons of rapeseed oil / ha / year. In addition, Konferensi Minyak Sawit Indonesia VII (7th Indonesian Palm Oil Conference) held in Bali by GAPKI can provide a clearer picture about palm oil prospect.

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Wednesday, November 9, 2011

Palm Oil Industry Development Strategy

Palm oil industry development strategy in Indonesia need to be formulated carefully, considering that it is a country with the largest world supplier of CPO. Their production in 2009 reached 18.6 million tons. Business prospects this commodity in this country would be good if all aspects were well managed by the government and must be fully supported by the palm oil (PO) industry. There are seven obstacles to the development of Indonesia's PO industry. Of the seven barriers can be concluded into four main things that should be considered by all parties.
Infrastructure development strategy
One of them is the absence of an international port as a main distribution point for palm oil from Indonesia. Then the suggestion offered is to start building an international port in the strategic areas of PO business (clusters) such as in Kalimantan (Borneo), Riau, and We Island at the northern part of Sumatra. The ports can be placed in the Straits of Malacca to be related to the European market, while to seize the Asia market, it can be built in the Natuna Sea or Borneo.
Environment Strategy
The existence of a moratorium on natural and peat lands are directly delivered by the president as a result of an agreement on inter-country meeting in Oslo, was worrying because it is probably narrow the possible field for the plantation. But after further review, the moratorium is for the common good. Business actors also recognize the support of a moratorium, but the government is expected to be fair in all the sectors of interest, and wise.
Development strategy of palm oil downstream industry
There is a desire of the investor to hasten the formation of a specialized agency that houses the business. High commitment is needed from government embodied in the form of, among others, a clear blueprint on the development of PO industry, policies that helps the development of the industry from upstream to downstream, and development activities are coordinated and integrated among relevant agencies, as well as the creation of more conducive investment climate to create more interest in the PO industry. Promotion institution is required specifically to promote the Indonesian palm oil products to the export destination countries to improve market access for that products in the international market.
Regulatory Improvement Strategy
These include the taxation system. Ideally the government establishes a warm climate to make a breakthrough policy. The fact, the government set higher taxes for the PO business, so the investors preferred to directly build a cooking oil factory in export destination countries. It is suggested that this tax can be minimized and better optimized if the tax paid to be returned again on the path of palm oil business, among others, to build the infrastructure, and returned in the form of incentive for farmers, so it will push the productivity up.
In addition to the four things that should be observed above, there is one additional strategy which is said by the Indonesia minister of agriculture, Mr.Suswono, that the key to overcoming the problem of low productivity per hectare, is research. Research needs to be held and allocated sufficient funds to do research because it is proven in the country of Malaysia which have less land for plantation, but their palm fruit can be produced twice as much as Indonesia in one hectare. Malaysia which is one of world's PO producer, has the Malaysian Palm Oil Board, which is a fusion of the two institutions: research and licensing institutions.
In addition, the 7th Indonesian Palm Oil Conference held by GAPKI expected to provide deal solutions for various issues and development strategies for palm oil industry.

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Tuesday, November 8, 2011

Threats to palm oil business

Threats to palm oil business came through the anti-palm oil campaign that continues to this day. Even the pressure given to that industry may be growing stronger in the future. The campaign theme is still associated with the issue of climate change and environmental degradation. The series of such campaigns will be more systematic, which not only carried out by NGOs alone but by certain consumer groups and some countries in the European Union, through the threat of new standards enforcement in the palm oil trade and apply the rules in the form of non-tariff barrier.
According to the results of the ICBS (2000) that the American Soybean Association (ASA) conducted a policy of unfair trade (not fair) with a campaign that the CCO (crude coconut oil) and CPO contain saturated fatty acids and high cholesterol which are not good for health. This course will build a negative brand image as well as threats to business, especially palm oil from Indonesia. It because soybean oil produced by American countries is more expensive than PO and is unable to compete with PO. Soybean oil export share even have started to be taken over by the CPO. Its production costs only U.S. $ 180/ton, while soybean oil U.S. $ 315/ton and rapeseed oil U.S. $ 750/ton. Seeing this condition, ASA led by the USA started campaign negative issues against the CPO in the hope customers will come back to consume soybean oil.
Therefore, to counteract these issues, the Indonesian government is seemed to approach through trade lobbying. Fight against such threats through scientific way such as research to find objective data in supporting the CPO trade and then the results are published on an international scale.
By considering the increase in world vegetable oil demand and the expansion of all the world vegetable oil production, palm oil business should not stop the expansion if they do not want to lose market opportunities and lose momentum of building a national economy.
Therefore, the government should create a good climate to making a breakthrough policy as an effort to overcome the threats facing the business of palm oil.

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Saturday, November 5, 2011

Indonesia palm oil prospect

In order to study Indonesia palm oil prospect, it is needs to estimate the market opportunities (increased consumption) in the world market. Based on the previous estimation, the consumption level until 2025 is expected to range between 41.45 - 44.45 million tons. On the other hand, world CPO production in 2004 was 25.67 million tons. Thus, the chance to increase production until 2025 is ranged from 15.78 - 18.78 million tons.
With a fairly open market opportunity both in terms of world exports or consumption, CPO producing countries will try to exploit these market prospect. Malaysia and Indonesia is to lead this competition. As expected, Malaysia as the main producer is expected to take these opportunities with increased production at a rate of 2.8% -1.5% per year. Indonesia is predicted to increase production at a rate between 3.0% -7.6% per year.
There are several arguments told that with the support of consistent and effective policy, associated with the Indonesia palm oil prospect, this country is expected to capitalize on most of these market opportunities. The main factor is the availability of land that is still quite large. The availability of land suitable for palm plantation in Indonesia reaches about 2.9 million ha. On the other hand, Malaysia faced difficulties because of the very limited land for expansion. Other countries such as Thailand, etc. are also not predicted as the real competitor because of their limited land, and its policy which not putting palm oil as a commodity. Nigeria palm oil output is estimated to be only sufficient to meet their domestic needs.
With this argument, Malaysia is predicted to take the opportunities by 20% (3.16 - 3.76 million tons) and approximately 40% (6.31 to 7.51 million) will be utilized by other states. Indonesia is estimated to take the greatest prospect to utilize about 40% or about 6.31 to 7.51 million. This means that with the assumption that productivity is about 3.5 tons of CPO / ha, they have a chance to expand between 1.80 - 2.15 million ha. If the expansion carried out between the years 2005-2025, then every year they should expand about 120 -140 thousand hectares to support their palm oil prospect.

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Monday, October 31, 2011

Palm oil downstream industry development

Agriculture expert from Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Prof Erliza Hambali told through the development of the palm oil downstream industry, it could be one of Indonesia's biggest foreign exchange producer. According to Prof. Erliza Hambali, the industry can be relied upon as a driver of national economy and are able to produce large amounts of foreign exchange. Referring to the data issued by the chamber, protection of national income in 2010 of crude palm oil (CPO) reached U.S. $ 14 billion.
Prof. Erliza argues, the income from CPO at U.S. $ 14 billion can be increased through the development of palm oil downstream industry (IHKS). With such development, value-added product in Indonesia can be utilized as much as possible both to improve people's welfare state and foreign exchange.
He said that, until now Indonesia is the country's largest CPO producer in the world. This reputation has been borne by Indonesia since 2006. According to him, the advantages of Indonesia at the sub-sector needs to be kept on hold and was developed to improve the welfare of the community.
He believed the development of the palm oil downstream industry may be the important key in the national economy forward, foreign exchange, job creation, increase added value for CPO and improve national food security and energy.

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Sunday, October 30, 2011

World's palm oil producers

Indonesia is now the world's largest palm oil producer beat Malaysia, Bangkok, Thailand, and several other agricultural countries. In the last 5 years, the development of palm plantations in that country reached 5 million hectares of the reserve potential of 19.7 million hectares, or much broader than with Malaysia remaining 4.6 million hectares. Previously, Malaysia known as the largest producer but now their land had limited and was replaced by Indonesia. A rapid development of palm oil industries in this country,is supported by land and climatic conditions which is suitable for plant growth.
Meanwhile, the development of downstream businesses is continued to be developed. CPO is generally processed into refined oil, in the form of cooking oil (olein) and other products such as cocoa butter substitute (CBS), industrial margarine, and so on. The development of its chemical industry is also very heavily developed. The oleochemical industry today has been developed by some of the world's palm oil producer. In fact, in addition to an existed plant in Tanjung Morawa, today, one of the companies has nearly completed the world's largest oleochemical industry, which is located in Kuala Tanjung, North Sumatra. Construction of the plant has attracted one of the largest consumer goods manufacturers in the world, to order their products over the next 15 years.
Indonesian Palm Oil Association (Gapki) said Indonesia's CPO production in 2005 reached 15.2 million tons. From that volume, $ 4 million tons is consumed for domestic purposes and the remainder, 11.2 million tons, for export. This quantity can be compared with the export data from the Indonesia Bank data that said during 2005, it reached U.S. $ 4,707 million. If the price per tonne of CPO reached U.S. $ 400, then the number is very similar to the export volume issued by Gapki, which is about 11.2 million tons.
Then by the production volume of 15.2 million tons, whether this country has become the biggest producer or not? For that purpose, you may look for the production data from Bank Negara Malaysia, or the Malaysian Central Bank, which is seen producing highly reliable data. The result is the production from Malaysia in 2005 only 14 million tons. This means that Indonesia was already the world's largest palm oil producer. These facts speak for themselves eventually.

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Friday, October 28, 2011

Tax change effect on palm oil business

Indonesia change its policy of export tax provision of palm oil derived products obtain business reaction from buyer country such as India. The Hindustan country is planning to raise import tariffs of those commodities that will go into their country.
Anticipating the release of the policy, the traders in the country of Hindustan is buying more palm oil derivative products such as RBD olein from Indonesia. A total of 50,000 tons of that olein has been bought by the importer from India. The sources from Indonesia traders and India said the purchase was also a part to anticipate the demand for festivals or holidays in India. The edible oil processing industry in India is driving the government to raise import tariffs of those commodities from 7.7% to 16.5%. This is to protect the their industry interests which is now experiencing idle.
Secretary General of Indonesian Palm Oil Association (Gapki) Joko Supriyono said not know about that action from India. But clearly the current government of India will raise the its import tariff. He explained the presence of Minister of Finance Regulation No. 128/PMK.011/2011 on Regulation Amendment of the Minister of Finance Number 67/PMK.011/2010, it change the set of export tax on palm oil business is more expensive 0.5% to 4.5% from the previous.
"With India raise Indonesia CPO import tariffs became increasingly uncompetitive as it is subjected to the tax both in the producer country and also the destination country," he said.
Joko said India and Indonesia have the same interest-related to the CPO trade between the two countries. But with the government policy to change the rules so Indonesia palm oil products is more uncompetitive.
"Yes, it is strange (situation), if the state imposed a policy of import tariffs, then it is normal, but Indonesia also imposed a policy of export tariff," he said.
In addition to the change in export tax in accordance with the Minister of Finance Regulation No. PMK 128/PMK.011/2011, the Indonesia government has also added a total of 14 palm oil derived commodities(downstream products) are subject to tax exports. Previously those items, include crude palm oil (CPO), which is subjected to exports tax only amounted to 15. Thus there are 29 oil derivative products are subject to tax exports.
It is set in the Minister of Trade Regulation (Permendag) No. 26/M-DAG/PER/9/2011 which is officially assigned at September 14th 2011. HPE as many as 14 palm oil derivative products are subjected to export tax that starting from September 14th 2011 until September 30th , 2011.

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Tuesday, October 25, 2011

World palm oil production

World palm oil production during the last two decades has increased about 7.3% per year. This situation is highly influenced by Malaysia and Indonesia which contributed 80% of the global market.
In the next five years, crude palm oil or CPO production is expected will increase but smaller than the world consumption. Malaysia still dominated about 50% of the world market, while Indonesia is at the second level with 30%. Currently, those countries are the leading CPO producers with controls more than 80% market share.
World palm oil production is also contributed by other countries such as Nigeria, Colombia, Thailand, Papua New Guinea, and even the Ivory Coast, which are arguably only the complements. Malaysia ranked top with the volume in 2003 reached 13.35 million tons, while Indonesia is still 9.75 million tons. In 2004, Indonesia CPO reached 11.5 million tons. That's why a lot of optimism among analysts said that they would soon beat Malaysia, especially if you see the land area in Malaysia is more limited, while in Indonesia is still so widespread.
Palm oil (PO) in Indonesia is mostly absorbed by the food industry, especially cooking oil (CoO) and non-food industry such as cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. However, the greatest market potential is the frying oil. That potential is evident from the increase of population has implications for the increasing of food needs. Until 1997, their cooking oil production just reached 3.1 million tons of with PO contribution of 2.3 million tonnes of CoO (74%) which require 3.3 million tonnes of PO.
World palm oil production will continue to increase in the future, considering that it has the highest oil productivity per hectare plantation, even when compared with corn, canola, or soybean oil.

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Saturday, October 22, 2011

Palm oil products

Palm oil products are growing significantly, both in terms of needs and types. In connection with the increasing needs of domestic consumption Indonesia, the Indonesian government has tried to increase its production through the development programs of the private and the public, in addition to continue to promote the growth of downstream industries.
There are some cooking oil feedstock produced in Indonesia, among others, derived from coconut oil (CO), crude palm oil (CPO) and from Palm Kernel Oil (PKO)
CPO is obtained from its fruit fibers which is processed until soft and then squeezed. The results of this extraction can be used as base material for frying oil, margarine, etc.
In that processing, palm nuts are not broken and will be processed further to produce PKO. Because the oil produced from the kernel is very little compared to the CPO, the nuts are directly exported without further processing stages.
The oil can be traded in different forms, depending on the stage of its processing technology. Related to the edible oil industry, there are six types of its products are traded, namely palm oil (PO), pre-treated PO (PTPO), refine bleach & deodorize PO (RBDPO), refine bleach deodorize palm kernel oil (RBDPKO), pre-treated olein (PTO) or known as olein and refined crude olein.
CPO is the raw material for fatty acid, refine stearine (RS), and refine olein. The main market of refine stearine and fatty acid is the soap factory, margarine manufacturing, and chemical industry. RO can be mixed along with certain additives to obtained margarine, shortening, and bar soap.
Palm oil products in downstream level include intermediate products. They are the oleofood such as frying oil, margarine, and shortening. Cooking oil production increased 13-20% per year during 1991 to 1995 to reach 1,502,027 tons in the last year.
Increased CPO-based frying oil production beat down the Crude Coconut Oil / CCO and copra as a cooking oil raw material. PO productivity per hectare of plantation area is generally higher than coconut oil production.
Development of frying oil in Indonesia is shown by the increased demand for CPO. Every year it tends to increase with increasing downstream industries, such as frying oil and oleochemicals. Indonesia's domestic CPO consumption needs in 1995 about 3.3 million tonnes.
Currently, PO is the most dominant alternative copra substitution compared with maize and beans. This is because cooking oil price from PO is cheaper than from copra or CO.
In Indonesia, consumed cooking oil is divided into groups as follows: 1) CO from middle or small-scale industrial, 2) refine coconut oil, this type is obtained by refining the fist type mentioned before. 3) klentik oil (javanese name), this type is made by small entrepreneurs with fresh coconut as raw materials, and has good smell but is not durable. 4) others such as corn, peanut oil, and so on. 5) from PO. 5) margarine from vegetable oils.
Palm oil products can be expanded in future to produce a commodity in the new field, including health and energy, such as health supplement rich with vitamins A and biofuels.

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Wednesday, October 19, 2011

Unsaturated fatty acid

Unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), such as monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), can have positive health benefits when consumed in sufficient quantities. Actually there so many fat types and certain types have benefits for heart health?
Classification of fats and oils can be viewed from several aspects, one of which is its saturation aspect. They can be distinguished based on its double bonds. Saturated (SFA) if it doesn’t has any double bond and unsaturated if it has one, two or three double bonds.
Examples of unsaturated fat
There are so many kind of agricultural product which contain high UFA, such as sunflower, canola, olive, soybean, peanut, flax seed, and fish oil.
The examples mentioned above, more specifically also contain high essential fatty acids - linoleic acid (Omega 6), alpha linoleic acid (Omega 3) and arachidonic acid. The scientists found that they proved to have several important benefits such as helping the body burn the fat, lower bad cholesterol (LDL), helps in the lubrication of joints, prevent strokes, maintaining blood pressure, and optimize brain health.
Unsaturated fat benefits
Is good fat really exist? We always have long been told to limit the amount of fat in our diet in order to keep our cholesterol levels. The fact is, we need a certain amount of them in our diets. It helps us absorb essential vitamins like A, D, E, and K
A study by Grundy from the Faculty of Medicine, California, USA, proves that the body's cholesterol levels may go down if the diet contains more MUFA and PUFA than SFA. Dietary SFA for a month proved to raise cholesterol levels. While the dietary MUFA, dropped it sharply, including LDL and HDL. In dietary PUFA, LDL and total cholesterol decreased, while HDL relatively unchanged.
PUFA are known to increase the intelligence and the immune system of children under five. Long chain unsaturated fatty acid (especially the omega - 3 DHA) have been shown to play an important role in the prevention and treatment of blocked arteries (atherosclerosis), thrombosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and high blood pressure. It has the potential for prevention and treatment of asthma, arthritis, migraine, and some types of cancer which is prostate, breast and colon cancer.
Unsaturated fat types
Most of UFA are fatty acids containing one double bond in their hydrocarbon chain. Fatty acids with more than one double bond are unusual, mainly found in vegetable oil, and called by PUFA. Polyunsaturated triglycerides tend to form oil.
PUFA can lower total blood cholesterol, especially LDL. If you want to consume this, you can be choose fish, seafood, safflower oil (Carthamus tinctorius), and sun flower oil. MUFA can reduce the presence of bad fats in the blood, such as cholesterol. By consuming them, HDL rises and LDL cholesterol goes down. So, it is good to be eaten for health. It is contained in olive oil, canola oil peanut oils, meat, fish, poultry, and avocado.
Unsaturated fat health risk
Although it is considered as a good fat, excessive consumption of UFA remain dangerous. If the total fat intake is more than 30 percent of food consumed, fat deposits in the body will increase. It increases the risk factor of increased blood fat that can cause heart and blood vessel disease. UFA forms the cell wall of the body. Consumption of high UFA should be followed by adequate intake of antioxidants such as vitamin E.
SFA, UFA, and trans would enhance the body's calorie. The public still considers only SFA which is bad for health, which are widely found in meat and its derivative products and fried foods. Each 1 gram of fat contains 9 calories, whereas 1 gram of starchy produces only 4 calories.
In addition to long chain SFA, trans fats is also bad for health. These are produced through industrial processes, such as margarine and cooking oil. In food packaging, it is called as hydrogenated fat. They do not only increase LDL, but also lowers the amount of good cholesterol. Unlike the SFA that only increase LDL.
The role of unsaturated fatty acid need to be studied further to ensure the influence of food and agricultural products that contain these components on human health.

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Monday, October 17, 2011

How to choose healthy cooking oil

How to choose healthy cooking oil is generally an important consideration for the good housewives as they would fry food for their family. Frying is a food processing using a very high temperature with the aid of oil as the heat transfer medium. But because a small portion of them was absorbed by the fried food, then it should be good quality as this can affect the flavor (taste, flavor, and aroma) of fried foods.
Unethical advertising fool the consumers
The lack of knowledge of the housewives about cooking oil can result in disadvantages. Their consideration usually based on advertising or promotion by the manufacturer. Whereas in promoting their products, manufacturers often violate norms and business ethics. Coconut oil, used to be, is the only cooking oil that is used in Indonesia but is now being pressured by the market for palm oil. It contains saturated fatty acids (SFA) in high quantities so often 'accused' as the source of coronary heart disease.
Now, on the market many cooking oil made from raw materials such as coconut, palm, soybean, corn, and sunflower seed oil. Even some of that were a mixture of two kinds of the oil. In addition, there are also palm cooking oil which come from different manufacturing process than other vegetable oils. The first product is known as the product from single fractionation while the second from the double fractionation.
Through the heating and pressing, from palm fruit will be obtained crude palm oil (CPO) which is reddish orange because they contain beta-carotene (about 400-700 ppm). It is composed of two fractions: namely solid fraction (stearin) and liquid fraction (olein). To become a cooking oil, CPO is undergoing the first refining process, namely neutralization, washing, decolorization (bleaching), and odor removal (deodorization) to obtain refined bleached deodorized palm oil (RBDPO). The second refining is the fractionation process which is often also referred as the screening. It will separate the solid from the liquid by lowering the oil temperature (to 20 degrees Celsius) and then filtered the solid part.
The solid product contained in the liquid is known as the solid fat content (SFC). Palm oil obtained from a single fractionation process at a temperature of 10 degrees Celsius contains about 15-20% SFC, while those obtained from the double process only contains about 0-5% SFC. Double fractionated palm oil will always be liquid at low temperatures because the content of SFC was also low. While the single fractionated palm oil will freeze when soaked in ice water because the content was higher SFC. In other words, the content of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) of double fractionated product is higher than the other one. This is then associated with the state of the oil (fat) in the body. It means if the oil (from the single process) is frozen in the ice water so it will also be frozen in the human body. Though the body temperature is about 37 celcius degrees and quiet different with the ice or refrigeration temperature. Of course this kind of advertising or promotion certainly fool consumers. Cooking oil was changed into solid phase when it is stored in the refrigerated room so that it would appear whitish. It does not mean that there were deterioration on their quality but because its SFA content is relatively high so it freezes faster than the product contains more UFA.
There are sometime cooking oil manufacturers who claim that their products do not contain cholesterol. This is completely misleading because all kinds of cooking oils derived from plant materials, does not contain cholesterol.
Oil saturation affects the health ?
People often consider the saturated fatty acid levels in the oil when they ask how to choose healthy cooking oil. Does that thought have strong support? Indeed, too much when we question its fatty acids composition. For example, certain cooking oils containing UFA are claimed to be better than oils containing SFA.
First, the amount of oil contained in fried foods is relatively small (except for the pan-fried food) and secondly, during the frying, UFA will be broken down due to high temperature during the frying (about 150-180 degrees Celsius). So that the amount of UFA are expected to be consumed, actually very little.
Coronary heart disease is not only due to the ingestion of SFA. Many other factors must be considered. It has been scientifically proven, the palm oil consumption, although it contain relatively high SFA, does not cause atherosclerosis (clogged arteries) and coronary heart disease. This is because its SFA containing medium carbon chain (unlike animal fat) in the body so it is more widely used as an energy source and does not raise cholesterol levels (LDL) in blood.
Excessive consumption of unsaturated fatty acids would endanger the health because it can form more radical compounds in the body. Something that can damage cells and tissues.
A study proves, the unsaturated fatty acids consumption will increase the chances of excessive destruction of blood vessels due to atherosclerosis by radical compounds. The experts always recommend the use of high UFA must be accompanied by a high consumption of vitamin E as well. Cardiologists Medical Association in U.S. recommends that consumption of oil / fat is limited to about 30% of total calories consumed (approximately 90-100 g of oil / fat per day). Oils / fats should consist of 10% SFA, 10% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and 10% poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). This statement clearly indicates, the consumption of SFA are allowed in reasonable quantities. Especially if the source is only from of fried food.
Indeed there is scientific evidence that UFA can lower cholesterol levels and can prevent the atherosclerosis onset and coronary heart disease, but the oil must be consumed in a crude state. Not as cooking oil, such as salad oil (salad oil).
Other tips
How to choose healthy cooking oil can also be done simply. First, see the clarity and second, whether its smell is rancid or not. A good one is clear and no smell rancid.

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Saturday, October 15, 2011

Emulsifier as antioxidant in food

Emulsifier as antioxidant in food can play an important role to stabilize the fat or oil in the product against oxidative damage during storage. In oil-in-water emulsion systems (oil-in-water), Oil globules are surrounded by emulsifier molecule membrane so as to prevent the joining of globules. In addition, emulsifier membrane which is as interfacial region (interfacial region) can also act as a barrier to protect oil from oxidation processes induced by transition metals or free radicals.
The mechanism of oxidation of oil in the emulsion system is very different from the oil oxidation in bulk form due to the phenomenon of interfacial layer. The process of oxidation in the system is the oxidation of the interface (interfacial oxidation), which is a reaction that depends on the speed of diffusion of oxygen and its interaction with unsaturated fatty acids, metals and free radicals. So It is a phenomenon of interfaces which is strongly influenced by the properties of the interface itself. An understanding of the interfacial layer to be interesting to explain this phenomenon because of its nature as a physical barrier that alter the interaction between oil and water-soluble prooxidant..
Electric charge on the emulsion layer interface can be modified through the use of anionic surfactants, cationic or nonionic. The difference of electric charge becomes a challenging research because it affects the attraction or electrostatic repulsion of emulsifier to prooxidant and antioxidants which can speed up or slow down the oxidation reaction.
Role of emulsifier as antioxidant in food is also explained as follows. Long polar groups of surfactant and the addition of surfactant above the Micelles Critical Concentration or CMC to form micelles in aqueous phase is expected to hold and dissolve more prooxidant components which approach the interface, thereby increasing the oxidative stability of oil. Although some studies showed that the interface layer electric charge becomes an important factor in the oxidative stability of oil in water emulsion, but only little is known about how the other properties of the interfacial layer effect on the oxidative stability.
Partition behavior of the component effects on its reactivity at oil-in-water emulsion system. Nonpolar antioxidants in the fat globules are more effective in inhibiting oxidation than polar antioxidants which is significantly dissolved into the continuous phase. Emulsions containing surfactant micelles above the CMC produces the continuous phase. Micelles will be able to break and dissolve the antioxidant components or prooxidant approaching fat globules into the water phase of the system so it is expected to provide better oxidative stability. This mechanism is expected to be the new perspective to escort the oxidative stability of oil in water emulsion.
Selection of an appropriate emulsifier such as long-and short polar groups and the concentration of emulsifier used will affect the mechanism of oxidation of oil. Utilization of surfactant micelles to solubilize prooxidant to the water phase can be understood as an antioxidant technology because it can attract ions of transition metals from fat globules into the water phase. This method can provides more effective way to improve the oxidative stability of emulsion-based processed food products. Thus, the role of emulsifier as antioxidant in food is important in addition to its function as an emulsion stabilizer.

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Friday, October 14, 2011

Palm oil composition

Palm oil composition consists of a balanced fatty acid, with saturated fatty acids (SFA) content are almost the same with unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). It contains 14-45% palmitic (C16), 39-40% oleic (C18:1), 10-11% linoleic (C18:2), and 0.3 to 0.4% linolenic acid (C18:3). Linoleic and linolenic content low enough, so that it is quite stable to oxidation.
Palm oil from E. guineensis has C16 content between 27-55%, 28-56% C18:1 and C18:2 from 6.5 to 18%, while from Elaeis oleifera (widely cultivated in South and Central America) are more unsaturated than Elaeis Guineensis. The yield from Brazil are generally more unsaturated (C18:1 content of an average of 43.2% and C18:2 on average 11.5%). Similarly, the product from the Elaeis oleifera species , commonly cultivated in South America, contains 55-64% C18:1 and 16-23% C18:2. Elaeis oleifera has a ratio of the oil / bunches which is very low, so that it is commercially uneconomical. Crosses between the Eg x Eo is a hybrid that produces yield with characteristics in between.
Palm oil composition showed triacylglycerol or TAG consisting of C46 to C56, with the main TAG is C50 and C52. It can produce a variety of further processed products (olein, stearin, PMF, super olein, etc.). They also contain some useful minor components, among which are the carotenoids (500-700 ppm), tocopherols & tocotrienols (600-1000), sterols (326-527), ubiquinone (10-80), squalene (200-500) , phospholipids (5-130), triterpene alcohols (40-80), methyl sterols (40-80), aliphatic alcohols (100-200). Most of the components are no longer detectable in the refined product, except tocopherols & tocotrienols, sterols, ubiquinone, or squalene which is still quite high in quantity. Carotens and tocopherols are potent antioxidants and stabilize it against oxidation. During refining, bleaching processes, and steam deodorization remove some of these valuable components. The amount remaining in the refined product depends on the refining conditions.
They contain disaturated TAGs(POP and PPO) with high melting point and monosaturated TAGs (POO and OPO) with low melting point. Palm oil composition is unique among vegetable oils because its significant content of SFA (10-15%) at pos.-2 of the TAGs.

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Thursday, October 13, 2011

Vitamin A fortification to frying oil

Today, vitamin A deficiency in developing countries should be given more attention. The current intake is still low, only 20% of the RDA. It because of the most food of the developing countries is based on cereal, their low purchasing power, and lack of indifference to the problem of malnutrition. Vitamin A supplementation program still needs to be repaired.
One effort to overcome these problems is the vitamin A fortification in frying oil. The fortification has been proven safe and effective, as well as low cost and high benefit. From the results of several studies from Bogor Agriculture Institute of Indonesia, vitamin A is proved stable against heating. Its retention on the first pan bread lasuna (temperature 160-170) is still around 89%, and will be reduced on the second and third frying. The same result is found in several other products, such as fish, potatoes, and so on.

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Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Palm oil uses

Palm oil uses covers a very wide field, ranging from food, health, oleochemicals, etc.. Unlike the other oil-bearing plants, its trees provide us two (2) types of products. Both can be processed into various types of derivative products. In the harvested bunches, we can get skin and bunches (29%), seeds or kernel (11%), and fruit flesh / fibers (60%). Pressing process of its fruit flesh (mesocarp) will produce (i) crude palm oil or CPO and its kernel (endosperm) will give us (ii) crude palm kernel oil or CPKO. Both have unique chemical characteristics and different nutrition.
Food and non-food application
It has the potential to be used in various applications. In practice, CPO is further processed or fractionated into olein which is raw material for cooking or frying oil. For other food purposes, it is widely used as shortening, margarine, vanaspati, cocoa butter substitutes, and other various ingredients. Its applications for non-food purposes also continues to grow, especially for oleochemicals, i.e. fatty acid, glycerin, etc., and various material for chemical industries, eg for the pharmaceutical industry. However, its main application is still for food stuff.
Palm oil uses in the food product formulation will provide better durability, because it is very stable against the process of rancidity and other oxidative damage. For that reason, it is the best for cooking or frying. They have a tendency to get crystallized in the form of small crystals, so that it can improve the performance of creaming when used in cakes and margarine formulations. Its palmitic acid content is very good for the aerated mixing of fat and sugar, for example in the baking process.
As fat products
They are good to be used to make vanaspati or vegetable ghee, which contains 100% vegetable fat; and then it can be used to substitute cocoa butter and butter milk. Bread produced from shortening from palm oil, has a better texture and durability. It is also widely used for the cream biscuits production, especially since its solids content and relatively high melting point.
With temperature regulation and fractionation techniques, it will obtain a variety of fractions with different characteristics and with a specific application purposes, in addition to olein and stearin fraction. One of popular method is double fractionation to result the superolein and the middle fraction (palm mid fraction/ PMF). PMF is used for manufacturing Cocoa Butter Equivalent (CBE) which has much higher economic value and used as a substrate for enzymatic reaction to yield CBE. On the world market; it can be priced to about USD480/ton. It is referred as specialty fats and has a very useful melting point for example if it is used as raw material for the manufacture of chocolate bars. Chocolate bars will remain solid at room temperature, but it soon melted in the mouth when chewed.
Palm oil uses could be developed even further in the future along with the rise of research to produce derivative products such as biodiesel.

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Sunday, October 9, 2011

Emulsifier structure

Emulsifier structure allows the activity of the surface (surface-active agents) that lowers the surface tension between the air-liquid and liquid-liquid contained in a food system. Its ability to lower the that tension becomes interesting because they have a miracle chemical structure of compounds capable of uniting two different polarity and at the same polarity protect fats from oxidation because it acts as a barrier (barrier) to metals and free radicals.
The ability of emulsifier structure to lowers the tension because it break the hydrogen bonds at the surface through the withdrawal of the hydrophilic heads on the water surface with a hydrophobic tail extends away. Their tail is hydrophobic which extends into the fat globule, while the head facing the water molecule. So, it gives the hydrophilic coat surrounding globule fat to form an emulsion.
The mechanism of emulsion formation begins with the provision of energy to form a new interface in an emulsion system. At first a liquid dispersed by mechanical means into the liquid to another. The amount of work needed to form globule largely determined by the size of its diameter. Just to mention one example, for dispersing 1 ml of olive oil with a diameter of 5 micrometers in 10 m cubic water needs energy of about 274,800 ergs. However, the amount of this energy will be reduced significantly become only 36,000 ergs when using emulsifiers, because emulsifier structure can reduce tension between the surface of 22.9 dyne / cm to 3 dyne / cm.

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Thursday, October 6, 2011

Fats and oils benefits

Fats and oils benefits as essential organic compounds to life of many living things, include:
1. Provide savory flavor and aroma of the specific
2. As one of the components of the cell wall materials and biomolecules
3. Effective energy source compared with protein and carbohydrates. They are completely oxidized to produce 9 calories/gram, while protein and carbohydrate produced only 4 calories per 1 gram of protein or carbohydrate.
4. Because of their high boiling point, then oil is usually used for frying foods in which the ingredients are fried would lose most of its water content and become dry.
5. Fats and oils benefits are to provide layered, soft, and smooth consistency in the manufacture of bread.
6. Giving a soft texture in the manufacture of ice cream
7. Vegetable oil is the main ingredient of margarine manufacturing
8. Animal lipids are the main ingredients of milk and butter manufacturing
9. Essential fatty acids prevent blockage of the blood vessels.
10.Some types can be processed into renewable fuel or biofuel to replace the fuel from petroleum.
11. As a raw material for petrochemical (glycerol, etc..), pharmaceutical/supplement industry
12. Their outstanding change in total solid at various temperatures allows its use in chocolate bars that need good melting properties when it is chewed in the mouth.
Thus, fats and oils benefits include many aspects, ranging from nutrition, physical and sensory properties of food, health, food processing, etc.

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Tuesday, October 4, 2011

Red palm oil as source of vitamin A

Red palm oil as source of vitamin A and E will be the next business prospects of the health sector for more advanced vegetable oil industry. Indonesia as the world's biggest producer of crude palm oil (CPO) has the opportunity to generate new products of healthy vegetable oils. At least 10 million children and millions of poor people in Indonesia still lack Vitamin A, which is beneficial for the eyes health and keep the cell regeneration, immunity, and reduce the risk of cancer and lupus.
Meanwhile, according to nutritionist Prof. Dr. Muhilal, the active form of vit. A consists of retinol, retinal, retinoic acid. Sources of retinol is a liver, food of animal origin. Source of pro vitamin A (carotene) is green vegetables, yellow vegetables, yellow flesh fruit. Palm oil, he said, contains a very high provit. A, but discarded in the process of making cooking or frying oil. To overcome the problem of lack of vitamin A deficiency (VAD), there are four ways. It is consist of food-based interventions, supplementation, food fortification and public health interventions. It is also described that among other food-based interventions is conducted with red palm oil (1963-1969). In that period, children under five years old given one teaspoon of red palm oil per day showed significant increased vitamin A status.
What is the difference between CPO, cooking oil and red palm oil as source of vitamin A ?
CPO is the world's highest-producing carotenoids. The CPO at the first phase of processing showed a solid red color contains beta carotene and provit. A as much as 600-1000 mg per kg or ppm. Carotenoids as a provit. A is easily absorbed by the human digestive tract mucosa cells and then converted into retinol with the potential conversion of 98%. This makes the potential of red palm oil as a source of vitamin A which is much more effective and cheaper than other sources.
The CPO processing into frying oil involves the destruction of the provit. A large-scale cooking oil to obtain a clear or slightly yellow in color. This treatment process, referred to as purification, also destroys vit. E which is also contained in the CPO. If the CPO production in Indonesia reached a minimum production of 16 million tonnes per year, while provit. A carotenoid content of 550 ppm, then the amount of provit. A, which is destroyed at least 7700 tons per year. That quantity can meet the needs of at least 30 billion people per year with the calculation of the average demand per person of 700 mcg of retinol equivalents per day.
Therefore, research and product development of red palm oil as source of vitamin A should be one focus for researchers and industrial plantations in Indonesia.

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Sunday, October 2, 2011

Palm oil benefits scientific evidences

The Government of Indonesia show scientific evidences of the health benefits of palm oil to Australia. This was done because the draft legislation is being worked by Australia considered to be discriminatory. Government of Indonesia through the Ministry of Commerce has sent a letter of objection and expressed its position on the draft of Food Standards Act Amendment (Truth in Labeling-Palm Oil) Bill 2010 which is currently being discussed intensively in the Australian Parliament. Letter of objection were sent the Government of Indonesia to Australia on June 27, 2011.
Ministry of Commerce press conference in Jakarta, on July 1, 2011 said this because the draft law is discriminatory of Indonesian oil. In addition, the charge is accompanied by something that is not scientific to the impacts of that oil content for human health. The bill says the fat contained in that product is bigger than the oils derived from plants / vegetables. Food Standards Implementation Plan Amendment Bill 2010 by Australia may mislead consumers, so it needs to be refuted and clarified.
It has been scientifically proved that it contains no trans fatty acids, on the contrary contain a high stability for oxidation and MUFA / Omega 9 which is useful for reducing cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Some trading partners of Indonesia has recognized its benefits for health.
Scientific evidences of palm oil benefits is also provided by other countries. United States and Canada even have legitimized labeling of food products that contain it as the product is trans fat free. Currently, the government continued to try to engage in a dialogue with the Government of Australia that the provisions regarding the labeling will not be applied in Australia. The government hopes that the provisions of the Food Standards Amendment (Truth in Labeling-Palm Oil) Bill 2010 is not passed by the Legislative Australia because it would hamper Indonesia's palm oil exports to Australia. Indonesia shows commitment in maintaining an environment that is associated with the oil industry, one of them by implementing the certification scheme of Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil (ISPO), combined with the imposition of a moratorium on logging forest. This oil is one solution to the issue of food security (food security) and the volatility in food prices facing the world today. This is because one hectare of land can produce 6000 liters of palm oil, it is so much more environmentally friendly and sustainable when compared to rapeseed that produces only 1190 liters / ha, sunflower seed as much as 952 liters / ha and 446 liters of soybean seed / ha.
It also became an important commodity that can meet world food needs in the future. Besides, when studied carefully, the bill implementing the Food Standards Amendment Bill 2010 would violate several provisions contained in the GATT and the WTO. Many research in tropical countries also showed palm oil benefit scientific evidence.

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Saturday, October 1, 2011

Health benefits of olive oil

Many people do not know the health benefits of olive oil. The leaves are bright green and its ripe fruit is blackish purple in color and very rich in vitamins A, B1, B2, C, D, E, K, and iron.
- Increase metabolism
Eat 1 / 2 cup of its fruit each day can prevent obesity. The efficacy is derived from monounsaturated fats that can accelerate fat burning and prevent changes sugar into fat. In addition, in the British Journal of Nutrition said, monounsaturated fatty acids stimulate cholecystokinin, a type of appetite-suppressing hormone which sends satiety signals to the brain.
- Revitalize the immune system
They are rich with fat-soluble vitamin E, which protect cells from free radicals which are harmful. These antioxidants strengthen the immune system, reduce illnesses such as colds and flu to 30%, according to researchers at Tufts University in Boston. It is very helpful to reduce the risk of breast abscess because it is rich in Vitamin E. Their Vitamin E content contained was found to lower LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol), blood pressure, and the risk of heart disease.
- The other health benefits of olive oil is to smooth the skin
Eating its fruits which is the source of oleic acid, helps reduce the appearance of fine lines. This fatty acid can help our skin to be more elastic and protects our elastin of skin from damage. Rub olive oil on your face and avoid the eye area. After one minute, remove with warm water. It serves as an anti-aging mask.
- Increases blood circulation
They are an excellent source of polyphenols, antioxidant compounds that help prevent dangerous blood clots. A study in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology linking these compounds with elevated levels of nitric oxide, a molecule that increases the heart healthy blood vessel dilation and blood flow.
If you like eating food in the Mediterranean Sea area, of course familiar with the olives that are often mixed in the menu. These were processed in various forms, there are dried, pickled or extorted to be taken oil, which is then mixed into the diet so it has a distinctive taste, however, not only as a flavoring, the health benefits of olive oil for thousands of year also proved to be one of the secrets of caring for the human body.

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Friday, July 15, 2011

Airplanes flight using cooking oil as fuel ?

Thomson Airways will become the first British airline passengers which fly using biofuel - in this case cooking oil - when operating the service to fly to Spain on July 28. The airline said that it plans to operate flights from Birmingham to Palma, after receiving a final security clearance. According to the Daily Mail, the flight will operate on a 50/50 mix of Jet A1 fuel and esters of the hydroprocess and fatty acids (Hefa) - made from used cooking oil.
The airline plans to operate weekly flights to Spain using biofuels from September, initially on the same route and switch to Birmingham-Alicante during the winter schedule.
"Because biofuels more commercially available, Thomson Airways plans to expand the use of sustainable biofuels in its fleet over the next three years," said Chris Browne, Managing Director of Thomson Airways.
Earlier, on Wednesday, the Dutch airline KLM has been operating the world's first scheduled flight using the Boeing 737-800 biokerosene carrying 171 passengers across from Amsterdam to Paris, using a mixture of jet fuel and the same cooking oil is planned to be used by Thomson.
Trucks using cooking oil as fuel
After a short time ago the European airlines to use aircraft as fuel oil, now turn the truck in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) using the same fuel.
As quoted by the Associated Press on Monday (04/07/2011), now turn to the United Arab Emirates who use fuel oil, which this time is supplied by well-known fast food company, McDonald.
Dubai-based company, Neutral Fuels, announced that it has reached an agreement to process cooking oil from McDonald's outlets in the UAE to be 100 percent biodiesel fuel, for sending food trucks of McDonald in the United Arab Emirates. Neutral Fuels has tested biodiesel fuel last year and began to cultivate it from the cooking oil from McDonald's since the end of May.
"This is very interesting because in the Arab region has never been anyone tried to use this fuel," said Karl W. Feilder, Chairman of the Neutral Group.
"This is the first time we can produce a fuel which is 50 percent cleaner than normal diesel and has lower carbon content, because it comes from the residual cooking oil," he added.
Parties McDonald said that the move is part of their plan with the UAE in terms of new energy sources.
"McDonald's UAE has demonstrated strong commitment in terms of the environment," said Rafic Fakih, Managing Director of McDonlad UAE.
Neutral Fuels said that they have the capacity to produce 1 million liters of biodiesel a year, and those results can also be duplicated.
Although not described in detail how much biodiesel can be produced from 80 McDonald's outlets in the UAE, but Neutral Fuels said that the amount is sufficient to run the vehicles in the country.

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Thursday, July 14, 2011

CBE Processing (Cocoa Butter Equivalent Manufacturing)


One technique that many Cocoa Butter Equivalent processing (CBE manufacturing) carried out so far is by way of blending (mixing) between fat (which is rich in POP triacylglycerols) and other fat (rich in POS and SOS triglycerides). Proportional formulation would result in fat which performs melting and crystallization properties that are very similar to the CB (Cocoa Butter). POP is generally the main source of hard triacylglycerols palm mid fraction (PMF) as a product of multistage fractionation of palm oil. Meanwhile, as a source of POS and SOS can be obtained from exotic fats such as borneo illipe butter (tengkawang), sal stearin, mango stearin, kokum or dhupa fat.
Because of the limited resources of exotic natural fats, so the recent technique of enzymatic interesterification be one option for modifying fats and oils in the CBE production or CBE processing. Enzymatic interesterification usually needs raw material which is rich in oleic oil. Oleic oil is relatively more abundant in availability. During interesterification, redistribution of fatty acids in triacylglycerols will occur, so it will change the composition of fatty acids in triacylglycerols.
The consequences will affect the physical characteristics of oils and fats, such as melting and crystallization properties. The production of CBE through enzymatic interesterification can be performed using 1,3 specific lipase catalyst that will catalyze the reaction between the raw material which is rich in POP triacylglycerols such as palm oil and raw material which is rich in tristearin (SSS) or stearic acid, to produce a major triacylglycerols CBE, namely POS and SOS. This enzymatic interesterification has been developed commercially by several world companies of specialty fats, such as Fuji Oil Europe for example. This CBE processing through enzymatic interesterification was also developed by IPB SEAFAST Center, one of which uses a blend of PMF soft substrate (source of POP) with fully hydrogenated soybean oil (source of SSS) as a raw material. Triacylglycerols profile of CBE products relatively similar to the CB as seen in profile analysis using the HPLC chromatograms. Likewise, the profile of solid fat content (SFP) was close to the SFC profile of CB, although it needs further refinement in its fractination.

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Wednesday, July 13, 2011

Tips to reduce acrylamide formation in snack and tips to reduce trans fatty acid


Tips to reduce acrylamide formation
Here are some tips that can be used to reduce formation of acrylamide in products including snack product:
• Use ingredient to prevent the reaction between asparagine and reducing sugars.
• Change the asparagine into other forms, such as aspartic acid, by using enzymes.
• Modification of processes, mainly related to temperature, time, and pH.
• Less / replace the use of raw materials / ingredient containing asparagine and / or a reducing sugar.
World snack industry, including Indonesia grow quite rapidly. Innovation and high market demand is the key to why the product is still evolving. In fact, excessive snack consumption is often regarded as a cause of some health problems. For example, obesity, trans fatty acids, acrylamide, and so on.
The condition is exactly what later became a trend in the development of new products. Many industries are then trying to change the image by designing a healthy snack snack. It feels easier, because the food industry also received support from ingredient industry, machinery and other supporting industries. Some snack products that offer health effects of reducing agent, which is an important stage of the formation of acrylamide.
In addition, the use of amino acids are also widely studied. For example proline amino acids commonly found in flour that also could reduce acrylamide formation by 80%. The same is true of several other amino acids, namely tryptophan, cysteine, and glycine, although the level of effectiveness varies.
Meanwhile, researchers from China in a report published by the Journal of Food Chemistry reported that vitamin B3, can also be used to inhibit the formation of acrylamide in french fries by 50%. In that study, Zeng et al. (2009) actually use different types of vitamins, both water-soluble or water insoluble. However, vitamin B3 has the best effectiveness.
Tips to reduce trans fatty acids
Trans fatty acids are formed through partial hydrogenation process and its existence becomes a very important issue in recent years. It is not because the presence of trans fatty acids can lead to greater levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood and the risk of heart disease. So it is not strange if the USFDA requires to include the presence of these fatty acids in the label.
In the snack industry, the presence of trans fatty acids derived from fats and oils are used, especially the shortening and margarine. Actually, the increasing awareness of trans fatty acids is a separate chance for the national oil industry, because the palm oil contains no trans fatty acids.
Research conducted by Byung Hee Kim et al (2009) from the University of Georgia says, that interesterification of a mixture from canola oil, palm stearin and palm kernel oil with a certain ratio can produce a margarine with the same quality as commercial margarine. As for the shortening, a mixture of palm stearin and palm oil can produce a fat that is plastic that can be used as shortening. Jeyarani et al. (2009) in a report published by the Journal of Food Chemistry stated that a mixture containing 60-70% palm stearin palm stearin and 30-40% have a wider melting range, making it suitable to be used as a shortening.

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Tuesday, July 12, 2011

What is emulsifier definition?

Recently, developments in food science and technology are going more rapidly. Processed food products are produced to meet various consumer demands. In several markets, both traditional and at the mall, it is not difficult to find ice cream, sauces, bread with soft texture, mayonnaise, salad dressings, margarine, butter, food, baby formula and other dairy products.
The role of emulsifier
Rapidly development of new food products based emulsions caused by of the dual role of emulsifiers. The phenomenon of a mixture of water and oil tend to be separated can be fused because of "miracle" emulsifier. The compound connector that has two distinct poles, pole of polar and non polar, interacts specifically with the two liquids are not mutually dissolved. Under normal conditions, one liquid dispersed into a liquid that does not dissolve each other. Under abnormal conditions, one liquid dispersed in another liquid as globule whose diameter varies between 0.1 and 100 um. Small scattered globule called discontinuous phase. Meanwhile, the medium of the discontinuous phase is referred to as the continuous phase.
Ability emulsifier lowers the surface tension is a way to break the hydrogen bonds at the surface through the hydrophilic head drawdown at the water surface with a hydrophobic tail stretched away from the water surface.
When oil and water mixture shaken, then it provides the mechanical energy, so that droplets of oil dispersed into water and the emulsion is formed. However, this emulsion system is unstable and soon rejoined the oil droplets. In order for oil or water droplets dispersed in both the long time it takes the presence of an appropriate emulsifier.
The definition of emulsifier
Thus, by definition, emulsifiers is a compound having surface activity (surface-active agents) so as to lower the surface tension (surface tension) between the air-liquid and liquid-liquid contained in a system (in this case is a system of food).
Types of emulsifiers and examples of emulsifiers
Examples of emulsions in food systems include milk, margarine, and ice cream. While in general, emulsifiers consist of a natural emulsifier and artificial emulsifier (synthetic emulsifier). Natural emulsifier made from ingredients derived from nature. Eg from soy beans, egg yolks and so on. In the soybean seed, its oil content are very high, in addition to water. Both are connected by a substance called lecithin. The material is then extracted or taken to be emulsifiers that can be used in processing products.
Actually, lecithin is naturally present also in other grains as well as in animal products, like eggs and brains. But the lecithin that is easy and inexpensive to use is found in soybean seeds.
If lecithin is derived from soy beans, then the terms of the halal will be safer. But it is possible to extract lecithin from other materials, such as eggs and animal brains. In addition to increasing the effectiveness of emulsifying, the lecithin is sometimes added with a specific enzyme. This enzyme also needs to watch out its halal status, because it can come from sources that aren’t considered as halal.
The artificial or synthetic emulsifiers are derived from a human engineering to produce a bridge between oil and water. Although it is called as synthetic, but it is not entirely derived from synthetic materials. Only its manufacturing process are designed man-made, but the materials are often derived from natural ingredients.
Emulsifier in the manufacture of emulsion
The process of making emulsion can be done in various ways, such as by using a homogenizer. In this homogenization process, the liquid will be split into smaller droplets followed by droplet covering process by emulsifiers. If the droplet covering by the emulsifier is so slow then the droplet will be incorporated back (recoalescence) so that the droplets are formed tend to be large in size. So we need a proper selection of emulsifiers for the type of emulsion to be formed.

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Friday, July 8, 2011

Frying fat on deep fat -frying (part 2)


Antioxidants play an important role to prevent oxidation by reacting with oxygen so food component is protected. Antioxidants are commonly added to the food are BHA (Butylated hydroxyanisole), BHT (Butylated Hydroxy Toluene), and TBHQ (Tertiary Butyl Hydroquinone). Several studies have shown that TBHQ can protect the oil / fat better when compared with BHA or BHT in the frying process. Other components that also contribute to the stability of frying fat is citric acid and silicon metal or Dimethyl Polysiloxane (DMPS). Citric acid can act as a chelating (binding) the metal ions which are the catalysts of oxidation reactions.
DMPS function as anti-foam compound. The use of antioxidants TBHQ for frying fat is usually between 150-200 ppm, whereas the addition of DMPS optimum range 2-5 ppm. The role of DMPS is also associated indirectly with antioxidants, which the foam formation can accelerate oxidative deterioration. Some evaluations also showed that the use of DMPS is even more effective in preventing deterioration to the oil compared with the antioxidant BHT.
The products that have a high turnover such as in the industry of snack, does not require the use of anti-foam. But DMPS can cause problems in the attachment of the outer layer, such as the icing on the donut products, increase the absorption of oil, and reduces crispy texture of the product.
One way to maintain the quality of frying fat is the application of the top up procedure to the frying fats that have been used for several time. This relates to the term of slow oil turnover. Deterioration of oil in the frying of fast oil turnover is less, because the fresh oils / fats added continuously will stabilize the oil quality. In contrast to the frying of slow oil turnover, frying deterioration will be greater because only a little of the used frying fat old will be replaced with fresh frying fat. Increased free fatty acid content is used as an indicator of the extent of deterioration of frying fat.
Simple control of the quality of frying can be done by considering several factors such as discoloration, the formation of foam (foaming), smoke (smoking), changes in aroma and sensory evaluation of the product. Foaming or excessive smoking can cause a fire hazard. Foaming caused by high amounts of polar glycerides, especially those containing high polymer, while the smoke caused by free fatty acids and other breakdown products of low molecular weight.
While the more accurately analysis is done by measuring the parameters of free fatty acids, total polar materials, and peroxide value. All three are components of the reaction of fat frying deterioration and its value increases with increasing the deterioration.
Some developed countries have some criteria when we should not use the frying fat or oil, such as if the water content> 3 g / kg; free fatty acid content of> 1 g / kg; peroxide value> 2 meq / kg; smoke point <170 Celcius degree; content of polar compounds> 25%; and polymeric compounds content> 10%.

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