Friday, October 14, 2011

Palm oil composition

Palm oil composition consists of a balanced fatty acid, with saturated fatty acids (SFA) content are almost the same with unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). It contains 14-45% palmitic (C16), 39-40% oleic (C18:1), 10-11% linoleic (C18:2), and 0.3 to 0.4% linolenic acid (C18:3). Linoleic and linolenic content low enough, so that it is quite stable to oxidation.
Palm oil from E. guineensis has C16 content between 27-55%, 28-56% C18:1 and C18:2 from 6.5 to 18%, while from Elaeis oleifera (widely cultivated in South and Central America) are more unsaturated than Elaeis Guineensis. The yield from Brazil are generally more unsaturated (C18:1 content of an average of 43.2% and C18:2 on average 11.5%). Similarly, the product from the Elaeis oleifera species , commonly cultivated in South America, contains 55-64% C18:1 and 16-23% C18:2. Elaeis oleifera has a ratio of the oil / bunches which is very low, so that it is commercially uneconomical. Crosses between the Eg x Eo is a hybrid that produces yield with characteristics in between.
Palm oil composition showed triacylglycerol or TAG consisting of C46 to C56, with the main TAG is C50 and C52. It can produce a variety of further processed products (olein, stearin, PMF, super olein, etc.). They also contain some useful minor components, among which are the carotenoids (500-700 ppm), tocopherols & tocotrienols (600-1000), sterols (326-527), ubiquinone (10-80), squalene (200-500) , phospholipids (5-130), triterpene alcohols (40-80), methyl sterols (40-80), aliphatic alcohols (100-200). Most of the components are no longer detectable in the refined product, except tocopherols & tocotrienols, sterols, ubiquinone, or squalene which is still quite high in quantity. Carotens and tocopherols are potent antioxidants and stabilize it against oxidation. During refining, bleaching processes, and steam deodorization remove some of these valuable components. The amount remaining in the refined product depends on the refining conditions.
They contain disaturated TAGs(POP and PPO) with high melting point and monosaturated TAGs (POO and OPO) with low melting point. Palm oil composition is unique among vegetable oils because its significant content of SFA (10-15%) at pos.-2 of the TAGs.

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