Monday, October 31, 2011

Palm oil downstream industry development

Agriculture expert from Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Prof Erliza Hambali told through the development of the palm oil downstream industry, it could be one of Indonesia's biggest foreign exchange producer. According to Prof. Erliza Hambali, the industry can be relied upon as a driver of national economy and are able to produce large amounts of foreign exchange. Referring to the data issued by the chamber, protection of national income in 2010 of crude palm oil (CPO) reached U.S. $ 14 billion.
Prof. Erliza argues, the income from CPO at U.S. $ 14 billion can be increased through the development of palm oil downstream industry (IHKS). With such development, value-added product in Indonesia can be utilized as much as possible both to improve people's welfare state and foreign exchange.
He said that, until now Indonesia is the country's largest CPO producer in the world. This reputation has been borne by Indonesia since 2006. According to him, the advantages of Indonesia at the sub-sector needs to be kept on hold and was developed to improve the welfare of the community.
He believed the development of the palm oil downstream industry may be the important key in the national economy forward, foreign exchange, job creation, increase added value for CPO and improve national food security and energy.

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Sunday, October 30, 2011

World's palm oil producers

Indonesia is now the world's largest palm oil producer beat Malaysia, Bangkok, Thailand, and several other agricultural countries. In the last 5 years, the development of palm plantations in that country reached 5 million hectares of the reserve potential of 19.7 million hectares, or much broader than with Malaysia remaining 4.6 million hectares. Previously, Malaysia known as the largest producer but now their land had limited and was replaced by Indonesia. A rapid development of palm oil industries in this country,is supported by land and climatic conditions which is suitable for plant growth.
Meanwhile, the development of downstream businesses is continued to be developed. CPO is generally processed into refined oil, in the form of cooking oil (olein) and other products such as cocoa butter substitute (CBS), industrial margarine, and so on. The development of its chemical industry is also very heavily developed. The oleochemical industry today has been developed by some of the world's palm oil producer. In fact, in addition to an existed plant in Tanjung Morawa, today, one of the companies has nearly completed the world's largest oleochemical industry, which is located in Kuala Tanjung, North Sumatra. Construction of the plant has attracted one of the largest consumer goods manufacturers in the world, to order their products over the next 15 years.
Indonesian Palm Oil Association (Gapki) said Indonesia's CPO production in 2005 reached 15.2 million tons. From that volume, $ 4 million tons is consumed for domestic purposes and the remainder, 11.2 million tons, for export. This quantity can be compared with the export data from the Indonesia Bank data that said during 2005, it reached U.S. $ 4,707 million. If the price per tonne of CPO reached U.S. $ 400, then the number is very similar to the export volume issued by Gapki, which is about 11.2 million tons.
Then by the production volume of 15.2 million tons, whether this country has become the biggest producer or not? For that purpose, you may look for the production data from Bank Negara Malaysia, or the Malaysian Central Bank, which is seen producing highly reliable data. The result is the production from Malaysia in 2005 only 14 million tons. This means that Indonesia was already the world's largest palm oil producer. These facts speak for themselves eventually.

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Friday, October 28, 2011

Tax change effect on palm oil business

Indonesia change its policy of export tax provision of palm oil derived products obtain business reaction from buyer country such as India. The Hindustan country is planning to raise import tariffs of those commodities that will go into their country.
Anticipating the release of the policy, the traders in the country of Hindustan is buying more palm oil derivative products such as RBD olein from Indonesia. A total of 50,000 tons of that olein has been bought by the importer from India. The sources from Indonesia traders and India said the purchase was also a part to anticipate the demand for festivals or holidays in India. The edible oil processing industry in India is driving the government to raise import tariffs of those commodities from 7.7% to 16.5%. This is to protect the their industry interests which is now experiencing idle.
Secretary General of Indonesian Palm Oil Association (Gapki) Joko Supriyono said not know about that action from India. But clearly the current government of India will raise the its import tariff. He explained the presence of Minister of Finance Regulation No. 128/PMK.011/2011 on Regulation Amendment of the Minister of Finance Number 67/PMK.011/2010, it change the set of export tax on palm oil business is more expensive 0.5% to 4.5% from the previous.
"With India raise Indonesia CPO import tariffs became increasingly uncompetitive as it is subjected to the tax both in the producer country and also the destination country," he said.
Joko said India and Indonesia have the same interest-related to the CPO trade between the two countries. But with the government policy to change the rules so Indonesia palm oil products is more uncompetitive.
"Yes, it is strange (situation), if the state imposed a policy of import tariffs, then it is normal, but Indonesia also imposed a policy of export tariff," he said.
In addition to the change in export tax in accordance with the Minister of Finance Regulation No. PMK 128/PMK.011/2011, the Indonesia government has also added a total of 14 palm oil derived commodities(downstream products) are subject to tax exports. Previously those items, include crude palm oil (CPO), which is subjected to exports tax only amounted to 15. Thus there are 29 oil derivative products are subject to tax exports.
It is set in the Minister of Trade Regulation (Permendag) No. 26/M-DAG/PER/9/2011 which is officially assigned at September 14th 2011. HPE as many as 14 palm oil derivative products are subjected to export tax that starting from September 14th 2011 until September 30th , 2011.

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Tuesday, October 25, 2011

World palm oil production

World palm oil production during the last two decades has increased about 7.3% per year. This situation is highly influenced by Malaysia and Indonesia which contributed 80% of the global market.
In the next five years, crude palm oil or CPO production is expected will increase but smaller than the world consumption. Malaysia still dominated about 50% of the world market, while Indonesia is at the second level with 30%. Currently, those countries are the leading CPO producers with controls more than 80% market share.
World palm oil production is also contributed by other countries such as Nigeria, Colombia, Thailand, Papua New Guinea, and even the Ivory Coast, which are arguably only the complements. Malaysia ranked top with the volume in 2003 reached 13.35 million tons, while Indonesia is still 9.75 million tons. In 2004, Indonesia CPO reached 11.5 million tons. That's why a lot of optimism among analysts said that they would soon beat Malaysia, especially if you see the land area in Malaysia is more limited, while in Indonesia is still so widespread.
Palm oil (PO) in Indonesia is mostly absorbed by the food industry, especially cooking oil (CoO) and non-food industry such as cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. However, the greatest market potential is the frying oil. That potential is evident from the increase of population has implications for the increasing of food needs. Until 1997, their cooking oil production just reached 3.1 million tons of with PO contribution of 2.3 million tonnes of CoO (74%) which require 3.3 million tonnes of PO.
World palm oil production will continue to increase in the future, considering that it has the highest oil productivity per hectare plantation, even when compared with corn, canola, or soybean oil.

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Saturday, October 22, 2011

Palm oil products

Palm oil products are growing significantly, both in terms of needs and types. In connection with the increasing needs of domestic consumption Indonesia, the Indonesian government has tried to increase its production through the development programs of the private and the public, in addition to continue to promote the growth of downstream industries.
There are some cooking oil feedstock produced in Indonesia, among others, derived from coconut oil (CO), crude palm oil (CPO) and from Palm Kernel Oil (PKO)
CPO is obtained from its fruit fibers which is processed until soft and then squeezed. The results of this extraction can be used as base material for frying oil, margarine, etc.
In that processing, palm nuts are not broken and will be processed further to produce PKO. Because the oil produced from the kernel is very little compared to the CPO, the nuts are directly exported without further processing stages.
The oil can be traded in different forms, depending on the stage of its processing technology. Related to the edible oil industry, there are six types of its products are traded, namely palm oil (PO), pre-treated PO (PTPO), refine bleach & deodorize PO (RBDPO), refine bleach deodorize palm kernel oil (RBDPKO), pre-treated olein (PTO) or known as olein and refined crude olein.
CPO is the raw material for fatty acid, refine stearine (RS), and refine olein. The main market of refine stearine and fatty acid is the soap factory, margarine manufacturing, and chemical industry. RO can be mixed along with certain additives to obtained margarine, shortening, and bar soap.
Palm oil products in downstream level include intermediate products. They are the oleofood such as frying oil, margarine, and shortening. Cooking oil production increased 13-20% per year during 1991 to 1995 to reach 1,502,027 tons in the last year.
Increased CPO-based frying oil production beat down the Crude Coconut Oil / CCO and copra as a cooking oil raw material. PO productivity per hectare of plantation area is generally higher than coconut oil production.
Development of frying oil in Indonesia is shown by the increased demand for CPO. Every year it tends to increase with increasing downstream industries, such as frying oil and oleochemicals. Indonesia's domestic CPO consumption needs in 1995 about 3.3 million tonnes.
Currently, PO is the most dominant alternative copra substitution compared with maize and beans. This is because cooking oil price from PO is cheaper than from copra or CO.
In Indonesia, consumed cooking oil is divided into groups as follows: 1) CO from middle or small-scale industrial, 2) refine coconut oil, this type is obtained by refining the fist type mentioned before. 3) klentik oil (javanese name), this type is made by small entrepreneurs with fresh coconut as raw materials, and has good smell but is not durable. 4) others such as corn, peanut oil, and so on. 5) from PO. 5) margarine from vegetable oils.
Palm oil products can be expanded in future to produce a commodity in the new field, including health and energy, such as health supplement rich with vitamins A and biofuels.

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Wednesday, October 19, 2011

Unsaturated fatty acid

Unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), such as monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), can have positive health benefits when consumed in sufficient quantities. Actually there so many fat types and certain types have benefits for heart health?
Classification of fats and oils can be viewed from several aspects, one of which is its saturation aspect. They can be distinguished based on its double bonds. Saturated (SFA) if it doesn’t has any double bond and unsaturated if it has one, two or three double bonds.
Examples of unsaturated fat
There are so many kind of agricultural product which contain high UFA, such as sunflower, canola, olive, soybean, peanut, flax seed, and fish oil.
The examples mentioned above, more specifically also contain high essential fatty acids - linoleic acid (Omega 6), alpha linoleic acid (Omega 3) and arachidonic acid. The scientists found that they proved to have several important benefits such as helping the body burn the fat, lower bad cholesterol (LDL), helps in the lubrication of joints, prevent strokes, maintaining blood pressure, and optimize brain health.
Unsaturated fat benefits
Is good fat really exist? We always have long been told to limit the amount of fat in our diet in order to keep our cholesterol levels. The fact is, we need a certain amount of them in our diets. It helps us absorb essential vitamins like A, D, E, and K
A study by Grundy from the Faculty of Medicine, California, USA, proves that the body's cholesterol levels may go down if the diet contains more MUFA and PUFA than SFA. Dietary SFA for a month proved to raise cholesterol levels. While the dietary MUFA, dropped it sharply, including LDL and HDL. In dietary PUFA, LDL and total cholesterol decreased, while HDL relatively unchanged.
PUFA are known to increase the intelligence and the immune system of children under five. Long chain unsaturated fatty acid (especially the omega - 3 DHA) have been shown to play an important role in the prevention and treatment of blocked arteries (atherosclerosis), thrombosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and high blood pressure. It has the potential for prevention and treatment of asthma, arthritis, migraine, and some types of cancer which is prostate, breast and colon cancer.
Unsaturated fat types
Most of UFA are fatty acids containing one double bond in their hydrocarbon chain. Fatty acids with more than one double bond are unusual, mainly found in vegetable oil, and called by PUFA. Polyunsaturated triglycerides tend to form oil.
PUFA can lower total blood cholesterol, especially LDL. If you want to consume this, you can be choose fish, seafood, safflower oil (Carthamus tinctorius), and sun flower oil. MUFA can reduce the presence of bad fats in the blood, such as cholesterol. By consuming them, HDL rises and LDL cholesterol goes down. So, it is good to be eaten for health. It is contained in olive oil, canola oil peanut oils, meat, fish, poultry, and avocado.
Unsaturated fat health risk
Although it is considered as a good fat, excessive consumption of UFA remain dangerous. If the total fat intake is more than 30 percent of food consumed, fat deposits in the body will increase. It increases the risk factor of increased blood fat that can cause heart and blood vessel disease. UFA forms the cell wall of the body. Consumption of high UFA should be followed by adequate intake of antioxidants such as vitamin E.
SFA, UFA, and trans would enhance the body's calorie. The public still considers only SFA which is bad for health, which are widely found in meat and its derivative products and fried foods. Each 1 gram of fat contains 9 calories, whereas 1 gram of starchy produces only 4 calories.
In addition to long chain SFA, trans fats is also bad for health. These are produced through industrial processes, such as margarine and cooking oil. In food packaging, it is called as hydrogenated fat. They do not only increase LDL, but also lowers the amount of good cholesterol. Unlike the SFA that only increase LDL.
The role of unsaturated fatty acid need to be studied further to ensure the influence of food and agricultural products that contain these components on human health.

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Monday, October 17, 2011

How to choose healthy cooking oil

How to choose healthy cooking oil is generally an important consideration for the good housewives as they would fry food for their family. Frying is a food processing using a very high temperature with the aid of oil as the heat transfer medium. But because a small portion of them was absorbed by the fried food, then it should be good quality as this can affect the flavor (taste, flavor, and aroma) of fried foods.
Unethical advertising fool the consumers
The lack of knowledge of the housewives about cooking oil can result in disadvantages. Their consideration usually based on advertising or promotion by the manufacturer. Whereas in promoting their products, manufacturers often violate norms and business ethics. Coconut oil, used to be, is the only cooking oil that is used in Indonesia but is now being pressured by the market for palm oil. It contains saturated fatty acids (SFA) in high quantities so often 'accused' as the source of coronary heart disease.
Now, on the market many cooking oil made from raw materials such as coconut, palm, soybean, corn, and sunflower seed oil. Even some of that were a mixture of two kinds of the oil. In addition, there are also palm cooking oil which come from different manufacturing process than other vegetable oils. The first product is known as the product from single fractionation while the second from the double fractionation.
Through the heating and pressing, from palm fruit will be obtained crude palm oil (CPO) which is reddish orange because they contain beta-carotene (about 400-700 ppm). It is composed of two fractions: namely solid fraction (stearin) and liquid fraction (olein). To become a cooking oil, CPO is undergoing the first refining process, namely neutralization, washing, decolorization (bleaching), and odor removal (deodorization) to obtain refined bleached deodorized palm oil (RBDPO). The second refining is the fractionation process which is often also referred as the screening. It will separate the solid from the liquid by lowering the oil temperature (to 20 degrees Celsius) and then filtered the solid part.
The solid product contained in the liquid is known as the solid fat content (SFC). Palm oil obtained from a single fractionation process at a temperature of 10 degrees Celsius contains about 15-20% SFC, while those obtained from the double process only contains about 0-5% SFC. Double fractionated palm oil will always be liquid at low temperatures because the content of SFC was also low. While the single fractionated palm oil will freeze when soaked in ice water because the content was higher SFC. In other words, the content of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) of double fractionated product is higher than the other one. This is then associated with the state of the oil (fat) in the body. It means if the oil (from the single process) is frozen in the ice water so it will also be frozen in the human body. Though the body temperature is about 37 celcius degrees and quiet different with the ice or refrigeration temperature. Of course this kind of advertising or promotion certainly fool consumers. Cooking oil was changed into solid phase when it is stored in the refrigerated room so that it would appear whitish. It does not mean that there were deterioration on their quality but because its SFA content is relatively high so it freezes faster than the product contains more UFA.
There are sometime cooking oil manufacturers who claim that their products do not contain cholesterol. This is completely misleading because all kinds of cooking oils derived from plant materials, does not contain cholesterol.
Oil saturation affects the health ?
People often consider the saturated fatty acid levels in the oil when they ask how to choose healthy cooking oil. Does that thought have strong support? Indeed, too much when we question its fatty acids composition. For example, certain cooking oils containing UFA are claimed to be better than oils containing SFA.
First, the amount of oil contained in fried foods is relatively small (except for the pan-fried food) and secondly, during the frying, UFA will be broken down due to high temperature during the frying (about 150-180 degrees Celsius). So that the amount of UFA are expected to be consumed, actually very little.
Coronary heart disease is not only due to the ingestion of SFA. Many other factors must be considered. It has been scientifically proven, the palm oil consumption, although it contain relatively high SFA, does not cause atherosclerosis (clogged arteries) and coronary heart disease. This is because its SFA containing medium carbon chain (unlike animal fat) in the body so it is more widely used as an energy source and does not raise cholesterol levels (LDL) in blood.
Excessive consumption of unsaturated fatty acids would endanger the health because it can form more radical compounds in the body. Something that can damage cells and tissues.
A study proves, the unsaturated fatty acids consumption will increase the chances of excessive destruction of blood vessels due to atherosclerosis by radical compounds. The experts always recommend the use of high UFA must be accompanied by a high consumption of vitamin E as well. Cardiologists Medical Association in U.S. recommends that consumption of oil / fat is limited to about 30% of total calories consumed (approximately 90-100 g of oil / fat per day). Oils / fats should consist of 10% SFA, 10% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and 10% poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). This statement clearly indicates, the consumption of SFA are allowed in reasonable quantities. Especially if the source is only from of fried food.
Indeed there is scientific evidence that UFA can lower cholesterol levels and can prevent the atherosclerosis onset and coronary heart disease, but the oil must be consumed in a crude state. Not as cooking oil, such as salad oil (salad oil).
Other tips
How to choose healthy cooking oil can also be done simply. First, see the clarity and second, whether its smell is rancid or not. A good one is clear and no smell rancid.

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Saturday, October 15, 2011

Emulsifier as antioxidant in food

Emulsifier as antioxidant in food can play an important role to stabilize the fat or oil in the product against oxidative damage during storage. In oil-in-water emulsion systems (oil-in-water), Oil globules are surrounded by emulsifier molecule membrane so as to prevent the joining of globules. In addition, emulsifier membrane which is as interfacial region (interfacial region) can also act as a barrier to protect oil from oxidation processes induced by transition metals or free radicals.
The mechanism of oxidation of oil in the emulsion system is very different from the oil oxidation in bulk form due to the phenomenon of interfacial layer. The process of oxidation in the system is the oxidation of the interface (interfacial oxidation), which is a reaction that depends on the speed of diffusion of oxygen and its interaction with unsaturated fatty acids, metals and free radicals. So It is a phenomenon of interfaces which is strongly influenced by the properties of the interface itself. An understanding of the interfacial layer to be interesting to explain this phenomenon because of its nature as a physical barrier that alter the interaction between oil and water-soluble prooxidant..
Electric charge on the emulsion layer interface can be modified through the use of anionic surfactants, cationic or nonionic. The difference of electric charge becomes a challenging research because it affects the attraction or electrostatic repulsion of emulsifier to prooxidant and antioxidants which can speed up or slow down the oxidation reaction.
Role of emulsifier as antioxidant in food is also explained as follows. Long polar groups of surfactant and the addition of surfactant above the Micelles Critical Concentration or CMC to form micelles in aqueous phase is expected to hold and dissolve more prooxidant components which approach the interface, thereby increasing the oxidative stability of oil. Although some studies showed that the interface layer electric charge becomes an important factor in the oxidative stability of oil in water emulsion, but only little is known about how the other properties of the interfacial layer effect on the oxidative stability.
Partition behavior of the component effects on its reactivity at oil-in-water emulsion system. Nonpolar antioxidants in the fat globules are more effective in inhibiting oxidation than polar antioxidants which is significantly dissolved into the continuous phase. Emulsions containing surfactant micelles above the CMC produces the continuous phase. Micelles will be able to break and dissolve the antioxidant components or prooxidant approaching fat globules into the water phase of the system so it is expected to provide better oxidative stability. This mechanism is expected to be the new perspective to escort the oxidative stability of oil in water emulsion.
Selection of an appropriate emulsifier such as long-and short polar groups and the concentration of emulsifier used will affect the mechanism of oxidation of oil. Utilization of surfactant micelles to solubilize prooxidant to the water phase can be understood as an antioxidant technology because it can attract ions of transition metals from fat globules into the water phase. This method can provides more effective way to improve the oxidative stability of emulsion-based processed food products. Thus, the role of emulsifier as antioxidant in food is important in addition to its function as an emulsion stabilizer.

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Friday, October 14, 2011

Palm oil composition

Palm oil composition consists of a balanced fatty acid, with saturated fatty acids (SFA) content are almost the same with unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). It contains 14-45% palmitic (C16), 39-40% oleic (C18:1), 10-11% linoleic (C18:2), and 0.3 to 0.4% linolenic acid (C18:3). Linoleic and linolenic content low enough, so that it is quite stable to oxidation.
Palm oil from E. guineensis has C16 content between 27-55%, 28-56% C18:1 and C18:2 from 6.5 to 18%, while from Elaeis oleifera (widely cultivated in South and Central America) are more unsaturated than Elaeis Guineensis. The yield from Brazil are generally more unsaturated (C18:1 content of an average of 43.2% and C18:2 on average 11.5%). Similarly, the product from the Elaeis oleifera species , commonly cultivated in South America, contains 55-64% C18:1 and 16-23% C18:2. Elaeis oleifera has a ratio of the oil / bunches which is very low, so that it is commercially uneconomical. Crosses between the Eg x Eo is a hybrid that produces yield with characteristics in between.
Palm oil composition showed triacylglycerol or TAG consisting of C46 to C56, with the main TAG is C50 and C52. It can produce a variety of further processed products (olein, stearin, PMF, super olein, etc.). They also contain some useful minor components, among which are the carotenoids (500-700 ppm), tocopherols & tocotrienols (600-1000), sterols (326-527), ubiquinone (10-80), squalene (200-500) , phospholipids (5-130), triterpene alcohols (40-80), methyl sterols (40-80), aliphatic alcohols (100-200). Most of the components are no longer detectable in the refined product, except tocopherols & tocotrienols, sterols, ubiquinone, or squalene which is still quite high in quantity. Carotens and tocopherols are potent antioxidants and stabilize it against oxidation. During refining, bleaching processes, and steam deodorization remove some of these valuable components. The amount remaining in the refined product depends on the refining conditions.
They contain disaturated TAGs(POP and PPO) with high melting point and monosaturated TAGs (POO and OPO) with low melting point. Palm oil composition is unique among vegetable oils because its significant content of SFA (10-15%) at pos.-2 of the TAGs.

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Thursday, October 13, 2011

Vitamin A fortification to frying oil

Today, vitamin A deficiency in developing countries should be given more attention. The current intake is still low, only 20% of the RDA. It because of the most food of the developing countries is based on cereal, their low purchasing power, and lack of indifference to the problem of malnutrition. Vitamin A supplementation program still needs to be repaired.
One effort to overcome these problems is the vitamin A fortification in frying oil. The fortification has been proven safe and effective, as well as low cost and high benefit. From the results of several studies from Bogor Agriculture Institute of Indonesia, vitamin A is proved stable against heating. Its retention on the first pan bread lasuna (temperature 160-170) is still around 89%, and will be reduced on the second and third frying. The same result is found in several other products, such as fish, potatoes, and so on.

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Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Palm oil uses

Palm oil uses covers a very wide field, ranging from food, health, oleochemicals, etc.. Unlike the other oil-bearing plants, its trees provide us two (2) types of products. Both can be processed into various types of derivative products. In the harvested bunches, we can get skin and bunches (29%), seeds or kernel (11%), and fruit flesh / fibers (60%). Pressing process of its fruit flesh (mesocarp) will produce (i) crude palm oil or CPO and its kernel (endosperm) will give us (ii) crude palm kernel oil or CPKO. Both have unique chemical characteristics and different nutrition.
Food and non-food application
It has the potential to be used in various applications. In practice, CPO is further processed or fractionated into olein which is raw material for cooking or frying oil. For other food purposes, it is widely used as shortening, margarine, vanaspati, cocoa butter substitutes, and other various ingredients. Its applications for non-food purposes also continues to grow, especially for oleochemicals, i.e. fatty acid, glycerin, etc., and various material for chemical industries, eg for the pharmaceutical industry. However, its main application is still for food stuff.
Palm oil uses in the food product formulation will provide better durability, because it is very stable against the process of rancidity and other oxidative damage. For that reason, it is the best for cooking or frying. They have a tendency to get crystallized in the form of small crystals, so that it can improve the performance of creaming when used in cakes and margarine formulations. Its palmitic acid content is very good for the aerated mixing of fat and sugar, for example in the baking process.
As fat products
They are good to be used to make vanaspati or vegetable ghee, which contains 100% vegetable fat; and then it can be used to substitute cocoa butter and butter milk. Bread produced from shortening from palm oil, has a better texture and durability. It is also widely used for the cream biscuits production, especially since its solids content and relatively high melting point.
With temperature regulation and fractionation techniques, it will obtain a variety of fractions with different characteristics and with a specific application purposes, in addition to olein and stearin fraction. One of popular method is double fractionation to result the superolein and the middle fraction (palm mid fraction/ PMF). PMF is used for manufacturing Cocoa Butter Equivalent (CBE) which has much higher economic value and used as a substrate for enzymatic reaction to yield CBE. On the world market; it can be priced to about USD480/ton. It is referred as specialty fats and has a very useful melting point for example if it is used as raw material for the manufacture of chocolate bars. Chocolate bars will remain solid at room temperature, but it soon melted in the mouth when chewed.
Palm oil uses could be developed even further in the future along with the rise of research to produce derivative products such as biodiesel.

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Sunday, October 9, 2011

Emulsifier structure

Emulsifier structure allows the activity of the surface (surface-active agents) that lowers the surface tension between the air-liquid and liquid-liquid contained in a food system. Its ability to lower the that tension becomes interesting because they have a miracle chemical structure of compounds capable of uniting two different polarity and at the same polarity protect fats from oxidation because it acts as a barrier (barrier) to metals and free radicals.
The ability of emulsifier structure to lowers the tension because it break the hydrogen bonds at the surface through the withdrawal of the hydrophilic heads on the water surface with a hydrophobic tail extends away. Their tail is hydrophobic which extends into the fat globule, while the head facing the water molecule. So, it gives the hydrophilic coat surrounding globule fat to form an emulsion.
The mechanism of emulsion formation begins with the provision of energy to form a new interface in an emulsion system. At first a liquid dispersed by mechanical means into the liquid to another. The amount of work needed to form globule largely determined by the size of its diameter. Just to mention one example, for dispersing 1 ml of olive oil with a diameter of 5 micrometers in 10 m cubic water needs energy of about 274,800 ergs. However, the amount of this energy will be reduced significantly become only 36,000 ergs when using emulsifiers, because emulsifier structure can reduce tension between the surface of 22.9 dyne / cm to 3 dyne / cm.

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Thursday, October 6, 2011

Fats and oils benefits

Fats and oils benefits as essential organic compounds to life of many living things, include:
1. Provide savory flavor and aroma of the specific
2. As one of the components of the cell wall materials and biomolecules
3. Effective energy source compared with protein and carbohydrates. They are completely oxidized to produce 9 calories/gram, while protein and carbohydrate produced only 4 calories per 1 gram of protein or carbohydrate.
4. Because of their high boiling point, then oil is usually used for frying foods in which the ingredients are fried would lose most of its water content and become dry.
5. Fats and oils benefits are to provide layered, soft, and smooth consistency in the manufacture of bread.
6. Giving a soft texture in the manufacture of ice cream
7. Vegetable oil is the main ingredient of margarine manufacturing
8. Animal lipids are the main ingredients of milk and butter manufacturing
9. Essential fatty acids prevent blockage of the blood vessels.
10.Some types can be processed into renewable fuel or biofuel to replace the fuel from petroleum.
11. As a raw material for petrochemical (glycerol, etc..), pharmaceutical/supplement industry
12. Their outstanding change in total solid at various temperatures allows its use in chocolate bars that need good melting properties when it is chewed in the mouth.
Thus, fats and oils benefits include many aspects, ranging from nutrition, physical and sensory properties of food, health, food processing, etc.

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Tuesday, October 4, 2011

Red palm oil as source of vitamin A

Red palm oil as source of vitamin A and E will be the next business prospects of the health sector for more advanced vegetable oil industry. Indonesia as the world's biggest producer of crude palm oil (CPO) has the opportunity to generate new products of healthy vegetable oils. At least 10 million children and millions of poor people in Indonesia still lack Vitamin A, which is beneficial for the eyes health and keep the cell regeneration, immunity, and reduce the risk of cancer and lupus.
Meanwhile, according to nutritionist Prof. Dr. Muhilal, the active form of vit. A consists of retinol, retinal, retinoic acid. Sources of retinol is a liver, food of animal origin. Source of pro vitamin A (carotene) is green vegetables, yellow vegetables, yellow flesh fruit. Palm oil, he said, contains a very high provit. A, but discarded in the process of making cooking or frying oil. To overcome the problem of lack of vitamin A deficiency (VAD), there are four ways. It is consist of food-based interventions, supplementation, food fortification and public health interventions. It is also described that among other food-based interventions is conducted with red palm oil (1963-1969). In that period, children under five years old given one teaspoon of red palm oil per day showed significant increased vitamin A status.
What is the difference between CPO, cooking oil and red palm oil as source of vitamin A ?
CPO is the world's highest-producing carotenoids. The CPO at the first phase of processing showed a solid red color contains beta carotene and provit. A as much as 600-1000 mg per kg or ppm. Carotenoids as a provit. A is easily absorbed by the human digestive tract mucosa cells and then converted into retinol with the potential conversion of 98%. This makes the potential of red palm oil as a source of vitamin A which is much more effective and cheaper than other sources.
The CPO processing into frying oil involves the destruction of the provit. A large-scale cooking oil to obtain a clear or slightly yellow in color. This treatment process, referred to as purification, also destroys vit. E which is also contained in the CPO. If the CPO production in Indonesia reached a minimum production of 16 million tonnes per year, while provit. A carotenoid content of 550 ppm, then the amount of provit. A, which is destroyed at least 7700 tons per year. That quantity can meet the needs of at least 30 billion people per year with the calculation of the average demand per person of 700 mcg of retinol equivalents per day.
Therefore, research and product development of red palm oil as source of vitamin A should be one focus for researchers and industrial plantations in Indonesia.

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Sunday, October 2, 2011

Palm oil benefits scientific evidences

The Government of Indonesia show scientific evidences of the health benefits of palm oil to Australia. This was done because the draft legislation is being worked by Australia considered to be discriminatory. Government of Indonesia through the Ministry of Commerce has sent a letter of objection and expressed its position on the draft of Food Standards Act Amendment (Truth in Labeling-Palm Oil) Bill 2010 which is currently being discussed intensively in the Australian Parliament. Letter of objection were sent the Government of Indonesia to Australia on June 27, 2011.
Ministry of Commerce press conference in Jakarta, on July 1, 2011 said this because the draft law is discriminatory of Indonesian oil. In addition, the charge is accompanied by something that is not scientific to the impacts of that oil content for human health. The bill says the fat contained in that product is bigger than the oils derived from plants / vegetables. Food Standards Implementation Plan Amendment Bill 2010 by Australia may mislead consumers, so it needs to be refuted and clarified.
It has been scientifically proved that it contains no trans fatty acids, on the contrary contain a high stability for oxidation and MUFA / Omega 9 which is useful for reducing cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Some trading partners of Indonesia has recognized its benefits for health.
Scientific evidences of palm oil benefits is also provided by other countries. United States and Canada even have legitimized labeling of food products that contain it as the product is trans fat free. Currently, the government continued to try to engage in a dialogue with the Government of Australia that the provisions regarding the labeling will not be applied in Australia. The government hopes that the provisions of the Food Standards Amendment (Truth in Labeling-Palm Oil) Bill 2010 is not passed by the Legislative Australia because it would hamper Indonesia's palm oil exports to Australia. Indonesia shows commitment in maintaining an environment that is associated with the oil industry, one of them by implementing the certification scheme of Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil (ISPO), combined with the imposition of a moratorium on logging forest. This oil is one solution to the issue of food security (food security) and the volatility in food prices facing the world today. This is because one hectare of land can produce 6000 liters of palm oil, it is so much more environmentally friendly and sustainable when compared to rapeseed that produces only 1190 liters / ha, sunflower seed as much as 952 liters / ha and 446 liters of soybean seed / ha.
It also became an important commodity that can meet world food needs in the future. Besides, when studied carefully, the bill implementing the Food Standards Amendment Bill 2010 would violate several provisions contained in the GATT and the WTO. Many research in tropical countries also showed palm oil benefit scientific evidence.

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Saturday, October 1, 2011

Health benefits of olive oil

Many people do not know the health benefits of olive oil. The leaves are bright green and its ripe fruit is blackish purple in color and very rich in vitamins A, B1, B2, C, D, E, K, and iron.
- Increase metabolism
Eat 1 / 2 cup of its fruit each day can prevent obesity. The efficacy is derived from monounsaturated fats that can accelerate fat burning and prevent changes sugar into fat. In addition, in the British Journal of Nutrition said, monounsaturated fatty acids stimulate cholecystokinin, a type of appetite-suppressing hormone which sends satiety signals to the brain.
- Revitalize the immune system
They are rich with fat-soluble vitamin E, which protect cells from free radicals which are harmful. These antioxidants strengthen the immune system, reduce illnesses such as colds and flu to 30%, according to researchers at Tufts University in Boston. It is very helpful to reduce the risk of breast abscess because it is rich in Vitamin E. Their Vitamin E content contained was found to lower LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol), blood pressure, and the risk of heart disease.
- The other health benefits of olive oil is to smooth the skin
Eating its fruits which is the source of oleic acid, helps reduce the appearance of fine lines. This fatty acid can help our skin to be more elastic and protects our elastin of skin from damage. Rub olive oil on your face and avoid the eye area. After one minute, remove with warm water. It serves as an anti-aging mask.
- Increases blood circulation
They are an excellent source of polyphenols, antioxidant compounds that help prevent dangerous blood clots. A study in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology linking these compounds with elevated levels of nitric oxide, a molecule that increases the heart healthy blood vessel dilation and blood flow.
If you like eating food in the Mediterranean Sea area, of course familiar with the olives that are often mixed in the menu. These were processed in various forms, there are dried, pickled or extorted to be taken oil, which is then mixed into the diet so it has a distinctive taste, however, not only as a flavoring, the health benefits of olive oil for thousands of year also proved to be one of the secrets of caring for the human body.

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