Monday, June 27, 2011

Frying fat on deep fat -frying (part 1)

Frying fat or frying shortening is more commonly used in the application of deep-fat frying at the snack, instant noodles, or fast food industry. Semi-solid form of frying fat will produce the appearance of dry and not greasy.
Physical differences between the frying fat and frying oil is a solid fat content profile (SFC) or a solid fat index (SFI). The melting point of frying fat is higher than the cooking oil. The range of the ideal melting point of frying fat for tropical regions is 35-40oC. While the ideal SFC at 30oC temperature range from 15-30% for the appearance of "dry" on the fried food product, and at a temperature of 35oC is <12% so as not to interfere mouthfeel with layers of fat that is felt in the mouth after food is consumed. The use of frying fat with a higher melting point for the donut product will result in a donut with a delicious creamy taste, but if the same frying fat is used for frying potato chips, the chips will feel waxy when consumed. Frying fat contained in the form of semi-solid at a relatively high melting point. Furthermore, semi-solid form of pourable is preferred, because of handling the frying fat during its use, storage, and transportation will be easier.

Oil or fat as raw material used for frying fat is very broad, i.e. partially hydrogenated vegetable oils to a mixture of vegetable oil with palm stearin. Vegetable oils are commonly used as a raw material of the frying fat is palm oil, soybeans, sunflower seeds, corn, peanuts, and coconut oil.
Frying fat significantly affect the characteristics of the fried food products such as its flavor and taste, texture, shelf life, and nutritional properties, because the frying fat is absorbed into the food. Absorption rate of oil / fat for frying is very varied, depending on the temperature, the type of products that are fried, and frying operations. General range of the amount of oil absorbed by the product during frying is 8-25%. Frying fat should have a neutral taste and characteristics of the corresponding flavor release, namely the SFC profile as previously mentioned, in order not to affect the flavor of the product. But the recent development is specific flavorful fat frying, such as the aroma of beef for frying french fries and the aroma of garlic for frying snack.
The ideal temperatures and quality of frying fat, which is recommended for frying process includes the following parameters: number peroxide, linolenic acid, color, free fatty acids, the flash point, smoke point, water content, and flavor. In addition to these general parameters, there are other parameters that are used: the values of oxidative stability which is described by the AOM (active oxygen method). It is about 50 -100 hours or Peroxide Numbers increased after the heating process at the temperature of 120oC for 2 hours should not be more than 5 meg / kg .
The most important factor of frying fat product is its stability: stability against heat or stability against oxidation. If the fried food product will be consumed directly, then the stability of frying fat is more focused on its shelf life. However, for products that are not consumed directly, the oxidative stability of the final product needs to be addressed. Requirements for oxidative stability of frying fat depends on the amount of oil absorbed by the food, packaging, and shelf life of these products. On the other hand, frying involving high temperatures can result in oxidative reactions and thermal degradation. It results in decreased oil quality. Therefore, the addition of food additives needs to be done, so it can extend the life of the frying fat. Food additives that are commonly used: antioxidant and anti-foam.

Related archieves:
Acrylamide and brain cancer
Acrylamide in food product
Reducing acrylamide in fried food
Virgin coconut oil: processing, quality and benefits

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